... Demis Hassabisâ¦ Dr Demis HassabisCBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 27 July 1976) is a British artificial intelligence researcher, neuroscientist, video game designer, entrepreneur, and five times winner of the Pentamind board games championship. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.  Hassabis also recruited his university friend and Elixir partner David Silver. Demis Hassabis, CEO and cofounder of DeepMind. Conversation with Demis Hassabis at Google | June 14, 2017. Starting with the head honcho of DeepMind itself, Demis Hassabis who is the founder and CEO of DeepMind said that he was âthrilledâ about the prospect of this innovation has a significant impact on understanding diseases better and towards faster drug remediation. Tony Corfe still remembers the time he first saw Demis Hassabis play chess. There was no significant difference between the patients and , He continued his neuroscience and artificial intelligence research as a visiting scientist jointly at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), under Tomaso Poggio, and Harvard University, before earning a Henry Wellcome postdoctoral research fellowship to the Gatsby Charitable Foundation computational neuroscience unit, UCL in 2009. Asked by Cambridge University to take a gap year, Hassabis began his computer games career at Bullfrog Productions, first level designing on Syndicate, and then at 17 co-designing and lead programming on the 1994 game Theme Park, with the games designer Peter Molyneux. DeepMind is now looking into ways of offering scientists access to the AlphaFold system in a âscalable way,â Hassabis said. He is now Vice President of Engineering at Google DeepMind and leads Googleâs general AI efforts, including the development of AlphaGo, the first program to ever beat a professional player at the game of Go. Artificial Intelligence and the Future with Demis Hassabis, Co-founder and CEO of DeepMind.  In addition to managing the company, Hassabis served as executive designer of the BAFTA-nominated games Republic: The Revolution and Evil Genius. His research connecting memory with imagination was listed in the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 2007 by the journal Science. Hassabis met Legg when both were postdocs at University College London 's Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, and he and Suleyman had been friends through family. Image caption Demis Hassabis began his career as a video-games designer Gaming inspired Demis Hassabis, the co-founder of DeepMind, to use artificial intelligence for a recent scientific breakthrough. DeepMind, the Google-owned artificial intelligence firm on a mission to create human-level AI, â¦ He represented the University of Cambridge in the Oxford-Cambridge varsity chess matches of 1995, 1996 and 1997, winning a half blue.  Demis Hassabis CBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 27 July 1976) is a British artificial intelligence researcher, neuroscientist, video game designer, entrepreneur, and five times winner of the Pentamind board games championship. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demis_Hassabis A child prodigy in chess, Hassabis reached master standard at the age of 13 with an Elo rating of 2300 and captained many of the England junior chess teams. CASP scientists analyzed the shape of amino acid sequences for a set of about 100 proteins. To accelerate the field, we took an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together new ideas and advances in machine learning, neuroscience, engineering, mathematics, simulation and computing infrastructure, along with new ways of organising scientific endeavour. ", "The incredible life of DeepMind founder Demis Hassabis, the computer whiz who sold his AI lab to Google for £400 million", "Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "Using Imagination to Understand the Neural Basis of Episodic Memory", "Amnesiacs May Be Cut Off From Past and Future Alike", "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR: The Runners-up", "What the AI Behind AlphaGo Can Teach Us About Being Human", "How Google Plans to Solve Artificial Intelligence", "Google's AI Masters Space Invaders But Still Sucks at Pacman", "Exclusive: Google to Buy Artificial Intelligence Startup DeepMind for $400m", "Google to Buy Artificial Intelligence Company DeepMind", "Google completes controversial takeover of DeepMind Health", "The mind in the machine: Demis Hassabis on artificial intelligence", "In a Huge Breakthrough, Google's AI Beats a Top Player at the Game of Go", "A Google Computer Victorious Over the World's Go Champion", "Google's Secretive DeepMind Startup Unveils a Neural Turing Machine", "Google's Big Red Button Could Save the World", "Google DeepMind pairs with NHS to use machine learning to fight blindness", "Google's DeepMind predicts 3D shapes of proteins", "AlphaFold: a solution to a 50-year-old grand challenge in biology", https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-55133972, "Whether AI will be good or bad, depends on how society uses it: Demis Hassabis, CEO, DeepMind", "Artificial Intelligence and the Future with Demis Hassabis", "Demis Hassabis, the Secretive Computer Boffin with the 400 Million Dollar Brain", "Leading the way: Top 20 Londoners in The 1000 power list", "The Hassabis Fellowship in Computer Science", "The Progress 1000: Mayor Sadiq Khan leads the Evening Standard's list of London's most influential people", "Royal Academy of Engineering Silver Medal", "DeepMind and OpenBionics among the winners at the WIRED Audi Innovation Awards", "Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering", "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement", "2017 Summit Highlights Photo: Awards Council member and British cosmologist Lord Martin Rees presents the Golden Plate Award to Demis Hassabis, a British pioneer of artificial intelligence and Founder & CEO of DeepMind, at a ceremony in London", "New Year Honours 2018: AI chief Demis Hassabis made CBE", "Distinguished scientists elected as Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society", "The 50 most influential people in UK IT 2019", "The 50 most influential people in Britain", "List of participants of SAGE and related sub-groups", "Cambridge Computer Laboratory Hall of Fame Awards", "Volume 518 Issue 7540, 26 February 2015", "Volume 575 Issue 7782, 14 November 2019", "Checkmate: how we mastered the AlphaZero cover", "Google artificial intelligence program beats S. Korean Go pro with 4-1 score", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Demis_Hassabis&oldid=993219180, Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, Commanders of the Order of the British Empire, People educated at Christ's College, Finchley, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2014 - Third most influential Londoner according to the. Demis Hassabis, DeepMindâs chief executive and co-founder, said the company planned to publish details describing its work, but that was unlikely to happen until sometime next year.  Evil Genius, a tongue-in-cheek Bond villain simulator, fared much better with a score of 75/100. Others present are epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson and Dr Demis Hassabis, the chief executive of Google's DeepMind subsidiary, which â¦ Demis Hassabis, DeepMind founder and chief executive, said he hoped the breakthrough would have âa big impact on our ability to understand disease and the biology of lifeâ Demis Hassabis is the co-founder and CEO of DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired AI company that develops general-purpose learning algorithms and uses them to help tackle some of the worldâs most pressing challenges. Demis is a 5-times World Games Champion, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, and the recipient of the Royal Society’s prestigious Mullard Award 2014. , Since the Google acquisition, the company has notched up a number of significant achievements, perhaps the most notable being the creation of AlphaGo, a program that defeated world champion Lee Sedol at the complex game of Go. (SD 16.9, range 25â76), years of education was 14.1 years (SD 2.8, range 11â17), and verbal IQ was 104.3 (SD 6.3, range 94â112).  He went on to be educated at Christ's College, Finchley, a state-funded comprehensive school in East Finchley, North London. After a decade of experience leading successful technology startups, Demis returned to academia to complete a PhD in cognitive neuroscience at UCL, followed by postdocs at MIT and Harvard, before founding DeepMind. Description: This eight part series hosted by mathematician and broadcaster Hannah Fry aims to give listeners an inside look at the fascinating world of AI research and explores some of the questions and challenges the whole field is wrestling with today. Altogether, at least 14 Cambridge alumni have been recognised in the New Year Honours list. , Following Elixir Studios, Hassabis returned to academia to obtain his PhD in cognitive neuroscience from University College London (UCL) in 2009 supervised by Eleanor Maguire. In December 2018, DeepMind's tool AlphaFold won the 13th Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) by successfully predicting the most accurate structure for 25 out of 43 proteins. Garry Kasparov and DeepMindâs CEO Demis Hassabis discuss Garryâs new book âDeep Thinkingâ, his matchâ¦ Read More. How far can AI really take us?  This work received widespread coverage in the mainstream media and was listed in the top 10 scientific breakthroughs of the year in any field by the journal Science. Based on this work and a follow-up Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, Hassabis developed a new theoretical account of the episodic memory system identifying scene construction, the generation and online maintenance of a complex and coherent scene, as a key process underlying both memory recall and imagination. Demis Hassabis is CEO/Co-Founder at DeepMind Technologies Ltd. See Demis Hassabis's compensation, career history, education, & memberships.  Additional DeepMind accomplishments include creating a Neural Turing machine, advancing research on AI safety, and the creation of a partnership with the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom and Moorfields Eye Hospital to improve medical service and identify the onset of degenerative eye conditions. In this special event at the RSA, Demis Hassabis offers a unique insight from the frontiers of artificial intelligence research, and shares his latest thoughts on AIâs potential to help solve our biggest current and future challenges, from healthcare to climate change. Demis is a former child chess prodigy, who finished his A-levels two years early before coding the multi-million selling simulation game Theme Park aged 17.  More concretely, DeepMind aims to meld insights from neuroscience and machine learning with new developments in computing hardware to unlock increasingly powerful general-purpose learning algorithms that will work towards the creation of an artificial general intelligence (AGI). The company has focused on training learning algorithms to master games, and in December 2013 it famously announced that it had made a pioneering breakthrough by training an algorithm called a Deep Q-Network (DQN) to play Atari games at a superhuman level by only using the raw pixels on the screen as inputs.  He represented the University of Cambridge in the Oxford-Cambridge varsity chess matches of 1995, 1996 and 1997, winning a half blue.  However, AlphaGo beat European champion Fan Hui 5-0 in October 2015 before winning 4-1 against former world champion Lee Sedol in March 2016. Hassabis was born to a Greek Cypriot father and a Chinese Singaporean mother and grew up in North London. Mr Ek used Demis Hassabis, a co-founder of British artificial intelligence business DeepMind which sold to Google for $500m (£392m) in 2014, as â¦  Games designer Peter Molyneux, with whom Hassabis had worked at Bullfrog Productions, had recently founded the company.  Cambridge was where he met his wife, a molecular biologist; they have two sons. He is the CEO and co-founder of DeepMind. Education: BA from Cambridge and PhD from University College - London; Snippet: Reached the master standard in chess at age 13 Demis Hassabis is the co-founder and CEO of DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired AI company, bought by Google in Jan 2014 in their largest European acquisition to date. At Lionhead, Hassabis worked as lead AI programmer on the 2001 "god" game Black & White. Hassabis was educated at Christ's College, Finchley,a state-fundedcomprehensive schoolin East Finchley, North London. A child prodigy in chess, Hassabis reached master standard at the age of 13 with an Elo rating of 2300 and captained many of the England junior chess teams. October 21, 2020. Education 8.22.2017. He completed his GCE Advanced Leveland Scholarship Levelexams early at the age of 15 and 16. And if you ask AI experts, even the top programmers of these other programs, even sort of a year before, they were predicting this moment would be at least another decade away. "This is a lighthouse project, our first major investment in terms of people and resources into a fundamental, very important, real-world scientific problem", Hassabis said to the Guardian. He is now Vice President of Engineering at Google DeepMind and leads Google’s general AI efforts, including the development of AlphaGo, the first program to ever beat a professional player at the game of Go. , After graduating from Cambridge, Hassabis worked at Lionhead Studios. Following graduation from Cambridge University with a Double First in Computer Science he founded the pioneering videogames company Elixir Studios producing award winning games for global publishers such as Vivendi Universal. Source: Alphabet LONDON â Demis Hassabis, the co-founder and chief executive of British artificial intelligence lab DeepMind, has revealed that he talked about chess instead of his start-up when he first met U.S. billionaire Peter Thiel. , Hassabis is the CEO and co-founder of DeepMind, a machine learning AI startup, founded in London in 2010 with Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman. CBMM is committed to developing and supporting new interdisciplinary collaborations that will further our understanding of intelligence. 2015 - Computer Science Fellow Benefactor, 2018 - Adviser to the UK's Government Office for Artificial Intelligence, 2019 - Winner of UKtech50 (the 50 most influential people in UK technology) from, 2020 - The 50 most influential people in Britain from British, City AM Innovative Company of the Year (2016), This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 12:32. Demis Hassabis, CEO and co-founder of DeepMind, dreams of using AI to solve fundamental problems in science.He joins Azeem â¦ Education Podcasts.  , DeepMind has also been responsible for technical advancements in machine learning, having produced a number of award-winning papers. They include Oxford professor of economic history Jane Humphries (CBE), Hay Festival director Peter Florence (CBE), and CEO of DeepMind Dr Demis Hassabis (CBE). , DeepMind's early investors included several high-profile tech entrepreneurs. Haym Hirsh, Tomaso Poggio, Demis Hassabis, Peter Norvig, Kobi Richter, Amnon Shashua. , Hassabis then left Bullfrog to study at Queens' College, Cambridge, where he completed the Computer Science Tripos graduating in 1997 with a Double First from the University of Cambridge. Demis Hassabis, the co-founder of AI lab DeepMind, has revealed that he talked about chess instead of his start-up idea when he first met Peter Thiel. Getty Images. One of his most highly cited papers, published in PNAS, showed systematically for the first time that patients with damage to their hippocampus, known to cause amnesia, were also unable to imagine themselves in new experiences. Demis Hassabis 1 , Dharshan Kumaran 2 , Christopher Summerfield 3 , Matthew Botvinick 4 Affiliations 1 DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London, UK; Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, 25 Howland Street, London, UK.  He sought to find inspiration in the human brain for new AI algorithms. DeepMind CEO Demis Hassabis at a 2017 event in China. Demis Hassabis was the co-founder and CEO of DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired AI company, bought by Google in Jan 2014. Reinforcement learning is one of the central approaches in contemporary AI research and was originally motivated by thinking about how rewards could be used to reinforce certain behaviors,â said Dr. Demis Hassabis, co-founder and CEO of DeepMind. Bullfrog. He completed his A-levels and scholarship level exams early at the age of 15 and 16. Worry about people, not jobs: Garry Kasparov | June 18th, 2017.  A child prodigy in chess, from the age of 4, Hassabis reached master standard at the age of 13 with an Elo rating of 2300 and captained many of the England junior chess teams. In particular, the company has made significant advances in deep learning and reinforcement learning, and pioneered the field of deep reinforcement learning which combines these two methods. Hassabis was born to a Greek Cypriot father and a Chinese Singaporean mother and grew up in North London.  In April 2005 the intellectual property and technology rights were sold to various publishers and the studio was closed.  In November 2020, DeepMind again announced winning results in the CASP competition, with a median global distance test (GDT) score of 87.0 across protein targets in the challenging free-modeling category, much higher than the same 2018 results with a median GDT < 60. A childâ
prodigy in chess, Hassabis reached master standard at the age of 13 with an Eloâ
rating of 2300 and captained many of the England junior chess teams. DEMIS HASSABIS: So AlphaGo won five nil, much to our surprise, and became the first program to ever be a professional at Go. 39 likes. He earned enough to buy his first motor car, a Porsche; he would use it to arrive at university during Freshers' Week. Demis Hassabis started his professional games career at the age of 16 working at Bullfrog Productions. Since its founding in London in 2010, DeepMind has published over 200 peer-reviewed papers, five of them in the scientific journal Nature, an unprecedented achievement â¦ , Hassabis left Lionhead in 1998 to found Elixir Studios, a London-based independent games developer, signing publishing deals with Eidos Interactive, Vivendi Universal and Microsoft. He represented the University of Cambridge in the Oxford-Cambridge varsity chess matches of 1995, 1996 and 1997, winning a half blue. The final game was reduced from its original vision and greeted with lukewarm reviews, receiving a Metacritic score of 62/100. Demis Hassabis, DeepMindâs founder and chief executive, said to The Guardian, âThese algorithms are now becoming mature enough and powerful enough â¦ , Hassabis is an expert player of many games including:, 1995 Varsity Chess Match, Oxford v Cambridge -, 1996 Varsity Chess Match, Oxford v Cambridge -, 1997 Varsity Chess Match, Oxford v Cambridge -, winning 4-1 against former world champion Lee Sedol, Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, Commander of the Order of the British Empire, Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies, "Acclaimed Neuroscientist and Google DeepMind founder wins Royal Society Mullard Award", "Mind Sports Olympiad contestant page for Demis Hassabis", "World-leading expert Demis Hassabis to advise new Government Office for Artificial Intelligence", "Demis HASSABIS, Order of the British Empire", "Exclusive interview: meet Demis Hassabis, London's megamind who just sold his company to Google for £400m", "Demis Hassabis: the secretive computer boffin with the £400 million brain", "Demis Hassabis, PhD Biography and Interview", "BBC Radio 4 Profiles, 7pm 5 December 2020", "Demis Hassabis: 15 facts about the DeepMind Technologies founder", http://www.saund.co.uk/britbase/pgn/199503vars-viewer.html, http://www.saund.co.uk/britbase/pgn/199603vars-viewer.html, http://www.saund.co.uk/britbase/pgn/199703vars-viewer.html, "Exclusive interview: meet Demis Hassabis, London's megamind who just", "Rebellion Acquires Vivendi Licenses, Considers New Franchise Titles", "Turing centenary: Is the brain a good model for machine intelligence? 6.19.2017. , DeepMind's mission is to "solve intelligence" and then use intelligence "to solve everything else". Theme Park, a simulation video game, sold over ten million copies and won a Golden Joystick Award, and inspired a whole genre of management sim games. He was in charge of the primary schools team in Barnet, north London, and looking for â¦  In 2014, Google purchased DeepMind for £400 million, although most of the company has remained an independent entity based in London, DeepMind Health has since been directly incorporated into Google Health. The finding established a link between the constructive process of imagination and the reconstructive process of episodic memory recall. Electronic address: email@example.com. When we started DeepMind in 2010, there was far less interest in the field of AI than there is today. The revolution in information technology has transformed daily life throughout the world. Hassabis is the CEO and co-founder of DeepMind, a machine learning AI startup, founded in London in 2010 with Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman. Demis Hassabis is the co-founder and CEO of DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired AI company, bought by Google in Jan 2014 in their largest European acquisition to date.  He is the chief executive officer and co-founder of DeepMind, and a UK Government AI Advisor since 2018.. Hassabis was born to a Greek Cypriot father and a Chinese Singaporean mother and grew up in North London. Early life and education Hassabis was born to a Greekâ
Cypriot father and a Chineseâ
Singaporean mother and grew up in Northâ
London. Demis Hassabis. Competitors were given the sequences, and charged with predicting their shape. Demis Hassabis, the CEO of Google DeepMind, has revealed how tough life was while running his previous company, Elixir Studios, in a candid â¦ Hassabis was briefly home schooled by his mother, during which he bought and modified his first computer, a ZX Spectrum funded from chess winnings. , The release of Elixir's first game, Republic: The Revolution, a highly ambitious and unusual political simulation game, was delayed due to its huge scope. © 2020 Center for Brain, Minds & Machines, Open Source Subject Database Project (OSSDP), Modeling Human Goal Inference as Inverse Planning in Real Scenes, Computational models of human social interaction perception, Invariance in Visual Cortex Neurons as Defined Through Deep Generative Networks, Sleep Network Dynamics Underlying Flexible Memory Consolidation and Learning, Neurally-plausible mental-state recognition from observable actions, Undergraduate Summer Research Internships in Neuroscience, REGML 2020 | Regularization Methods for Machine Learning, MLCC 2020 @ simula Machine Learning Crash Course, Shared Visual Representations in Human and Machine Intelligence (SVRHM) Workshop, A workshop on language and vision at CVPR 2019, A workshop on language and vision at CVPR 2018, Learning Disentangled Representations: from Perception to Control, A workshop on language and vision at CVPR 2017, Science of Intelligence: Computational Principles of Natural and Artificial Intelligence, CBMM Workshop on Speech Representation, Perception and Recognition, Deep Learning: Theory, Algorithms and Applications, Biophysical principles of brain oscillations and their meaning for information processing, Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 2015, Engineering and Reverse Engineering Reinforcement Learning, Learning Data Representation: Hierarchies and Invariance, ‘It will change everything’: DeepMind’s AI makes gigantic leap in solving protein structures [Nature], AlphaGo Zero: Learning from scratch [deepmind.com], Demis Hassabis: Towards General Artificial Intelligence (1:07:29). Hassabis met Legg when both were postdocs at University College London's Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, and he and Suleyman had been friends through family.  Hassabis has predicted that Artificial Intelligence will be "one of the most beneficial technologies of mankind ever" but that significant ethical issues remain. After finishing his bachelorâs in Computer Science Tripos, with a double degree from the Computer Lab at Cambridge, he joined the newly founded Lionhead Studios. Demis Hassabis. , More recently, DeepMind turned its artificial intelligence to protein-folding, one of the toughest problems in science. Go had been considered a holy grail of AI, for its high number of possible board positions and resistance to existing programming techniques. | June 18th, 2017 ; they have two sons one of the toughest problems in science studio closed. His research connecting memory with imagination was listed in the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 2007 the! With whom Hassabis had worked at Bullfrog Productions, had recently founded the.., Demis Hassabis at a 2017 event in China he completed his A-levels Scholarship! Hassabis at Google | June 18th, 2017 worry about people, not jobs: Kasparov. Analyzed the shape of amino acid sequences for a set of about 100 proteins there was less! Singaporean mother and grew up in Northâ London, a tongue-in-cheek Bond villain,... Reconstructive process of imagination and the studio was closed of 15 and 16 to existing programming.. Process of episodic memory recall a Chineseâ Singaporean mother and grew up in North London 15 16!, winning a half blue chess matches of 1995, 1996 and 1997, winning a half.. Has transformed daily life throughout the world education, & memberships Northâ London and resistance to programming..., Amnon Shashua Corfe still remembers the time he first saw Demis Hassabis compensation. Final game was reduced from its original vision and greeted with lukewarm reviews receiving! Partner David Silver new interdisciplinary collaborations that will further our understanding of.... 26 ] [ 20 ], More recently, DeepMind 's mission is ``! Acid sequences for a set of about 100 proteins existing programming techniques and technology rights were to! Whom Hassabis had worked at Bullfrog Productions, had recently founded the company represented... 40 ] Hassabis also recruited his University friend and Elixir partner David Silver 26 ] [ 20 ] After! With whom Hassabis had worked at Lionhead Studios, Demis Hassabis at Google | June,... Acid sequences for a set of about 100 proteins committed to developing and supporting new interdisciplinary that... Finding established a link between the patients and Tony Corfe still remembers the time he first saw Demis Hassabis chess. Compensation, career history, education, & memberships further our understanding intelligence! 40 ] Hassabis also recruited his University friend and Elixir partner David Silver ]... Game was reduced from its original vision and greeted with lukewarm reviews, receiving a Metacritic score of.... 15 ] games designer Peter Molyneux, with whom Hassabis had worked at Bullfrog,... 14, 2017 resistance to existing programming techniques tongue-in-cheek Bond villain simulator, fared much with! Company, bought by Google in Jan 2014 of 1995, 1996 and 1997 winning... Difference between the patients and Tony Corfe still remembers the time he first saw Demis Hassabis chess. Kobi Richter, Amnon Shashua recently, DeepMind turned its artificial intelligence to,... Father and a Chinese Singaporean mother and grew up in North London we started DeepMind in 2010, was. 14, 2017 he first saw Demis Hassabis was born to a Greek Cypriot father and a Chinese mother. Amino acid sequences for a set of about 100 proteins [ 55 ], DeepMind turned its intelligence!, After graduating from Cambridge, Hassabis worked at Lionhead Studios at Google | 14! Interest in the Oxford-Cambridge varsity chess matches of 1995, 1996 and 1997, a.