Doumani MD, Arnous WA, Alsafadi MF, Alnazer HA, Alanazi SM, Alotaibi KS, Al-Ammari AI. Historically, the material used during pulp capping procedures has been calcium hydroxide. Further research with the new material, however, is ongoing. These procedures offer good alternatives to root canal therapy for teeth with immature or mature apices when pulp is exposed with reversible injury and without signs of inflammation, offering a more conservative approach. Pulp-dentin regeneration: current state and future prospects. There is some debate as to whether the remaining radicular pulp orifices should be further treated with a medicament, such as formocresol or ferric sulfate. Methods: Electronic database MEDLINE via Ovid, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched. It is subadjacent to the odontoblastic layer and is traversed by capillaries, unmyelinated nerve fibers, and cytoplasmic processes of fibroblasts. This review is divided into 2 parts: the first aims to illustrate the basic biology of the pulp and the effects on the pulp due to various procedures; the second focuses on the clinical aspects of treatment and the use of various dental materials during different vital pulp therapy procedures performed in the primary and permanent teeth. In a different randomized clinical study, Nair and colleagues investigated the pulpal response to direct pulp capping in healthy human teeth with MTA versus calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal) as control. Therefore, preservation and treatment of the vital pulp are critical for the prevention of apical periodontitis. BA has also been shown have antifungal and antibacterial activity. Sodium Hypochlorite Reduces Postoperative Discomfort and Painful Early Failure after Carious Exposure and Direct Pulp Capping-Initial Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 2020 Jun 15;10(3):300-308. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_69_19. Another study showed that MTA causes neutrophils to be recruited to the site of injury, which is important in the process of inflammation. The cellular components of this layer include mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. Iran Endod J 2014; 9(1): 15-22. The full spectrum of signals responsible for the induction apoptosis in the cells by HEMA and TEGDMA is not established yet, but it involves several different pathways. The survival rate was 96% for primary molars (mean survival time, 146 weeks) and 93% for permanent teeth (mean survival time, 178 weeks). As the pulp is important for tooth nutrition, innervations, and immunocompetency, the maintaining of this precious tissue increases a tooth' mechanical resistance and survival rate. Introduction: This systematic review aims to illustrate the outcome of vital pulp therapy, namely direct pulp capping, partial pulpotomy, and full pulpotomy, in vital permanent teeth with cariously exposed pulp.  |  JNK belongs to the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases that comprise of a group of serine/threonine kinases, which are responsible for phosphorylation and mediation of signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Research: The authors stated that more well-designed observational studies of the methods of treating vital permanent teeth … Conclusions: Evid Based Dent. The tooth pulp is a unique organ and is encased in a protective layer of dentin, which is encased by a layer of the enamel. Vital pulp therapy with new materials: new directions and treatment perspectives—permanent teeth. It is likely that recommendations going forward will require sealing the orifices as the main objective. 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